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1. What to Expect when you are Not Expecting

http://www.cdc.gov/ART/

Infertility is often defined as not being able to get pregnant after trying for one year. Of the approximately 62 million women of reproductive age in 2002, about 1.2 million, or 2%, had an infertility-related medical appointment within the previous year, and 8% had an infertility-related medical visit at some point in the past. Infertility services include medical tests to diagnose infertility, medical advice and treatments to help a woman become pregnant, and services other than routine prenatal care to prevent miscarriage. Additionally, 7% of married couples in which the woman was of reproductive age (2.1 million couples) reported that they had not used contraception for 12 months and the woman had not become pregnant (2002 National Survey of Family Growth).

For many people who want to start a family, the dream of having a child is not easily realized. Today, one out of every six couples experience difficulties conceiving. In other words, there are at least five million infertile couples in the United States alone. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has been used in the United States since 1981 to help women become pregnant, most commonly through the transfer of fertilized human eggs into a woman’s uterus (in vitro fertilization). However, deciding whether to undergo this expensive and time-consuming treatment can be difficult.

In the United States and worldwide, ARTs are increasingly used to overcome all types of infertility disorders. More than 52,000 infants were born from ART treatments in 2005, representing more than 1% of the U.S. birth cohort. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with a substantial risk for multiple birth. Multiple birth is associated with poor infant and maternal health outcomes, including pregnancy complications, preterm delivery, low birth weight, congenital malformations, and infant death. As more women seek medical assistance to overcome their infertility it becomes important to ensure the safety of medical technology used and to continue research into the causes and prevention of infertility. The ART team works to achieve its goals through surveillance and epidemiologic research; training, technical assistance, consultation and collaboration with partners; the development of definitions, and standards; and informing public policy.

2. What is Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)?

Although various definitions have been used for ART, the definition used by CDC is based on the 1992 Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act that requires CDC to publish the annual ART success rates report. According to this definition, ART includes all fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled. In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman’s body or donating them to another woman. They do NOT include treatments in which only sperm are handled (i.e., intrauterine—or artificial—insemination) or procedures in which a woman takes medicine only to stimulate egg production without the intention of having eggs retrieved.

3. How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful?

Success rates vary and depend on many factors. Some things that affect the success rate of ART include:

  • age of the partners
  • reason for infertility
  • clinic
  • type of ART
  • if the egg is fresh or frozen
  • if the embryo is fresh or frozen

The U.S. Centers for Disease Prevention (CDC) collects success rates on ART for some fertility clinics. According to the 2003 CDC report on ART , the average percentage of ART cycles that led to a healthy baby were as follows:

  • 37.3% in women under the age of 35
  • 30.2% in women aged 35-37
  • 20.2% in women aged 37-40
  • 11.0% in women aged 41-42

2005 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates
National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports

The data for this national report comes from the 422 fertility clinics in operation in 2005 that provided and verified data on the outcomes of all ART cycles started at their clinics. The 134,260 ART cycles performed at these reporting clinics in 2005 resulted in 38,910 live births (deliveries of one or more living infants) and 52,041 infants. Data provided by U.S. fertility clinics that use ART to treat infertility is a rich source of information about the factors that contribute to a successful ART treatment—the delivery of a live-born infant.

ART can be expensive and time-consuming. But it has allowed many couples to have children that otherwise would not have been conceived. The most common complication of ART is multiple fetuses. But this is a problem that can be prevented or minimized in several different ways.

4. What are the different types of assisted reproductive technology (ART)?

Common methods of ART include:

  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) means fertilization outside of the body. IVF is the most effective ART. It is often used when a woman's fallopian tubes are blocked or when a man produces too few sperm. Doctors treat the woman with a drug that causes the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. Once mature, the eggs are removed from the woman. They are put in a dish in the lab along with the man's sperm for fertilization. After 3 to 5 days, healthy embryos are implanted in the woman's uterus.
  • Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) or Tubal Embryo Transfer is similar to IVF. Fertilization occurs in the laboratory. Then the very young embryo is transferred to the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
  • Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) involves transferring eggs and sperm into the woman's fallopian tube. So fertilization occurs in the woman's body. Few practices offer GIFT as an option.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is often used for couples in which there are serious problems with the sperm. Sometimes it is also used for older couples or for those with failed IVF attempts. In ICSI, a single sperm is injected into a mature egg. Then the embryo is transferred to the uterus or fallopian tube.

ART procedures sometimes involve the use of donor eggs (eggs from another woman), donor sperm, or previously frozen embryos. Donor eggs are sometimes used for women who cannot produce eggs. Also, donor eggs or donor sperm is sometimes used when the woman or man has a genetic disease that can be passed on to the baby.

5. How much does IVF cost?

  • An IVF treatment can range in cost between $10,000 and $18,000 per couple.

6. Does Insurance cover IVF?

  • Most health insurance policies do not cover the costs of infertility diagnosis and treatments. However, in recent years certain states have introduced laws requiring certain insurance providers to offer or cover specific fertility treatments. These laws are known as mandates. There are two types of mandates:

    Mandates to Offer: Mandates to offer require insurance companies to offer policies that cover infertility diagnosis and treatments. Employers must be made aware of these policies but are not required to include them in their employee benefits package.

    Mandates to Cover: Mandates to cover require insurance companies to cover the cost of certain fertility treatments in every policy. Monthly premiums help to cover the costs of these treatments.

    For more information click here.

7. Are there any risks associated with IVF?

  • There is significant risk in undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment including but not limited to: irritation, discomfort and bruising of the arm related to taking injections; discomfort and possible side effects from taking "fertility drugs" including but not limited to the over stimulation of the ovary which may require hospitalization and medical therapy; discomfort and the possibility of infection or injury to abdominal organs or blood vessels during the egg retrieval process; the chance of multiple pregnancy (e.g., twins, or triplets) due to the implantation of multiple embryos; and the chance of fetal and/or newborn malformations (although IVF-ET is not considered to increase the risk of fetal and/or newborn malformations any higher than such risk is with normal conception).

http://www.womenshealth.gov/faq/infertility.htm

8. What is infertility?

Most experts define infertility as not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying. Women who are able to get pregnant but then have repeat miscarriages are also said to be infertile.

Pregnancy is the result of a complex chain of events. In order to get pregnant:

  • A woman must release an egg from one of her ovaries (ovulation).
  • The egg must go through a fallopian tube toward the uterus (womb).
  • A man's sperm must join with (fertilize) the egg along the way.
  • The fertilized egg must attach to the inside of the uterus (implantation).

Infertility can result from problems that interfere with any of these steps. Is infertility a common problem?

About 12 percent of women (7.3 million) in the United States aged 15-44 had difficulty getting pregnant or carrying a baby to term in 2002, according to the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

9. Is infertility just a woman's problem?

No, infertility is not always a woman's problem. In only about one-third of cases is infertility due to the woman (female factors). In another one third of cases, infertility is due to the man (male factors). The remaining cases are caused by a mixture of male and female factors or by unknown factors.

10. What causes infertility in men?

Infertility in men is most often caused by:

  • problems making sperm -- producing too few sperm or none at all
  • problems with the sperm's ability to reach the egg and fertilize it -- abnormal sperm shape or structure prevent it from moving correctly

Sometimes a man is born with the problems that affect his sperm. Other times problems start later in life due to illness or injury. For example, cystic fibrosis often causes infertility in men.

11. What increases a man's risk of infertility?

The number and quality of a man's sperm can be affected by his overall health and lifestyle. Some things that may reduce sperm number and/or quality include:

  • alcohol
  • drugs
  • environmental toxins, including pesticides and lead
  • smoking cigarettes
  • health problems
  • medicines
  • radiation treatment and chemotherapy for cancer
  • age

12. What causes infertility in women?

Problems with ovulation account for most cases of infertility in women. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual periods.

Less common causes of fertility problems in women include:

13. What things increase a woman's risk of infertility?

Many things can affect a woman's ability to have a baby. These include:

  • age
  • stress
  • poor diet
  • athletic training
  • being overweight or underweight
  • tobacco smoking
  • alcohol
  • sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  • health problems that cause hormonal changes

14. How does age affect a woman's ability to have children?

More and more women are waiting until their 30s and 40s to have children. Actually, about 20 percent of women in the United States now have their first child after age 35. So age is an increasingly common cause of fertility problems. About one third of couples in which the woman is over 35 have fertility problems.

Aging decreases a woman's chances of having a baby in the following ways:

  • The ability of a woman's ovaries to release eggs ready for fertilization declines with age.
  • The health of a woman's eggs declines with age.
  • As a woman ages she is more likely to have health problems that can interfere with fertility.
  • As a women ages, her risk of having a miscarriage increases.

15. How long should women try to get pregnant before calling their doctors?

Most healthy women under the age of 30 shouldn't worry about infertility unless they've been trying to get pregnant for at least a year. At this point, women should talk to their doctors about a fertility evaluation. Men should also talk to their doctors if this much time has passed.

In some cases, women should talk to their doctors sooner. Women in their 30s who've been trying to get pregnant for six months should speak to their doctors as soon as possible. A woman's chances of having a baby decrease rapidly every year after the age of 30. So getting a complete and timely fertility evaluation is especially important.

Some health issues also increase the risk of fertility problems. So women with the following issues should speak to their doctors as soon as possible:

  • irregular periods or no menstrual periods
  • very painful periods
  • endometriosis
  • pelvic inflammatory disease
  • more than one miscarriage

No matter how old you are, it's always a good idea to talk to a doctor before you start trying to get pregnant. Doctors can help you prepare your body for a healthy baby. They can also answer questions on fertility and give tips on conceiving.

16. How will doctors find out if a woman and her partner have fertility problems?

Sometimes doctors can find the cause of a couple's infertility by doing a complete fertility evaluation. This process usually begins with physical exams and health and sexual histories. If there are no obvious problems, like poorly timed intercourse or absence of ovulation, tests will be needed.

Finding the cause of infertility is often a long, complex and emotional process. It can take months for you and your doctor to complete all the needed exams and tests. So don't be alarmed if the problem is not found right away.

For a man, doctors usually begin by testing his semen. They look at the number, shape, and movement of the sperm. Sometimes doctors also suggest testing the level of a man's hormones.

For a woman, the first step in testing is to find out if she is ovulating each month. There are several ways to do this. A woman can track her ovulation at home by:

  • recording changes in her morning body temperature (basal body temperature) for several months
  • recording the texture of her cervical mucus for several months
  • using a home ovulation test kit (available at drug or grocery stores)

Doctors can also check if a woman is ovulating by doing blood tests and an ultrasound of the ovaries. If the woman is ovulating normally, more tests are needed.

Some common tests of fertility in women include:

  • Hysterosalpingography (HSG): In this test, doctors use x-rays to check for physical problems of the uterus and fallopian tubes. They start by injecting a special dye through the vagina into the uterus. This dye shows up on the x-ray. This allows the doctor to see if the dye moves normally through the uterus into the fallopian tubes. With these x-rays doctors can find blockages that may be causing infertility. Blockages can prevent the egg from moving from the fallopian tube to the uterus. Blockages can also keep the sperm from reaching the egg.
  • Laparoscopy: During this surgery doctors use a tool called a laparoscope to see inside the abdomen. The doctor makes a small cut in the lower abdomen and inserts the laparoscope. Using the laparoscope, doctors check the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus for disease and physical problems. Doctors can usually find scarring and endometriosis by laparoscopy.

17. How do doctors treat infertility?

Infertility can be treated with medicine, surgery, artificial insemination or assisted reproductive technology. Many times these treatments are combined. About two-thirds of couples who are treated for infertility are able to have a baby. In most cases infertility is treated with drugs or surgery.

Doctors recommend specific treatments for infertility based on:

  • test results
  • how long the couple has been trying to get pregnant
  • the age of both the man and woman
  • the overall health of the partners
  • preference of the partners

Doctors often treat infertility in men in the following ways:

  • Sexual problems: If the man is impotent or has problems with premature ejaculation, doctors can help him address these issues. Behavioral therapy and/or medicines can be used in these cases.
  • Too few sperm: If the man produces too few sperm, sometimes surgery can correct this problem. In other cases, doctors can surgically remove sperm from the male reproductive tract. Antibiotics can also be used to clear up infections affecting sperm count.

Various fertility medicines are often used to treat women with ovulation problems. It is important to talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of these medicines. You should understand the risks, benefits, and side effects.

Doctors also use surgery to treat some causes of infertility. Problems with a woman's ovaries, fallopian tubes, or uterus can sometimes be corrected with surgery.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is another type of treatment for infertility.IUI is known by most people as artificial insemination. In this procedure, the woman is injected with specially prepared sperm. Sometimes the woman is also treated with medicines that stimulate ovulation before IUI.

IUI is often used to treat:

  • mild male factor infertility
  • women who have problems with their cervical mucus
  • couples with unexplained infertility

18. How is an IUI done?

  • An IUI -- intrauterine insemination -- is performed by threading a very thin flexible catheter through the cervix and injecting washed sperm directly into the uterus. The whole process doesn't take very long — it usually only requires the insertion of a speculum and then the catheter, a process that maybe takes a couple of minutes (60-90 seconds to introduce the catheter, then sperm injection, and another 60 seconds or so to remove the catheter — going slowly helps reduce discomfort). Sometimes when the cervix is hard to reach a tenaculum is used to hold the cervix, which makes the process a bit more uncomfortable. A typical "Tomcat" catheter is shown below.

19. Where is the sperm collected? How long before the IUI?

  • Usually the sample is collected through ejaculation into a sterile collection cup, but it is also possible to obtain collection condoms for this purpose (through the doctor's office -- Milex is one company that makes them). Most clinics want the semen to be delivered within a half hour of ejaculation, around the time of liquefaction, so if one lives close enough the sample can be collected at home. If not, one has to make do with a room at the clinic, a bathroom, or any private setting.
  • There is a delay between when the semen sample is dropped off for washing and when it is inseminated. The amount of time depends on the washing technique used, which takes 30 minutes to two hours, as well as on the clinic's scheduling. Most will perform the IUI as soon after washing is completed as possible.

20. When is the best timing for an IUI?

  • Ideally an IUI should be performed within 6 hours either side of ovulation — for male factor infertility some doctors believe after ovulation is better, otherwise chances of success are higher with insemination before ovulation with the sperm waiting for the egg. When timing is based on an hCG injection, the IUIs are usually done between 24 and 48 hours later. Typical timing would be to have a single IUI at about 36 hours post-hCG, though some do it at 24 hours, and some clinics are reporting better results when doing the IUI at 40-42 hours post-hCG. If two IUIs are scheduled, they are usually spaced at least 12 hours apart between 24 and 48 hours after the hCG. Some reports show no increase in success rates with two IUIs, but others suggest it may increase success as much as 6 percent.
  • Some doctors will base timing of IUI on a natural LH surge. In that case, a single IUI at 36 hours is the norm, but doing them at 24 hours is also pretty common since ovulation may be a bit earlier. When two inseminations are planned, they are usually timed between 12 and 48 hours after the surge is detected.
  • The egg is only viable for a maximum of 24 hours after it is released.

21. What is the success rate for IUI?

  • Searching through about a dozen medical journal articles and a number of web sites resulted in a rather wide range of statistics. Basically the odds of success are reported to be just under 6 percent and as high as 26 percent per cycle. The low statistics are with one follicle, while multiple follicles resulted in as high 26 percent success. Another influencing factor is sperm count. Higher sperm counts increase the odds of success; however, there was little difference between success with good-average counts and those with high counts. The overall success rate seems to be between 15-20 percent per cycle, judging from the articles which will be abstracted below. The rate of multiple gestation pregnancies is 23-30 percent.

22. How many follicles give my best chance of getting pregnant?

  • According to different studies, either 3-4 follicles gives one the best chance of getting pregnant, while more follicles beyond that simply increases the risk of multiples. The U.S. study said 4 follicles, while other countries have data stating 3. The U.S. has a higher rate of multiple births, so 3 may be more likely to be the correct answer.

23. Does IUI make sense when there isn't a sperm count problem?

  • IUI can help on Clomid cycles where cervical mucus is a problem, and IUI increases the chance of success on injectable cycles no matter what the sperm count. It does make sense to try IUI if you can and haven't had success with intercourse. It is important to note that with intercourse, only the best and strongest sperm make it through the cervical mucus and up into the uterus and fallopian tubes. With IUI, more sperm will be available for fertilization.

24. How high a sperm count is needed for IUI?

  • A count above one million washed appears necessary for success, with a significant reduction in pregnancy rates when the inseminated is count is lower than 5-10 million (in other words, in most cases one should consider 5 million a lower limit for success, 10 million for cost-effective). Higher success rates are with washed counts over 20-30 million, while increasing counts over 50 million did not appear to offer advantage.

25. How many IUIs should I try before moving on to IVF?

  • It depends on what you can afford and what meds you are doing. One might do 3-4 IUIs on Clomid before moving on to injectables, then do 3-4 cycles on injectables. If one doesn't have success after four good ovulatory cycles on injectables with well-timed IUI, it would be time to consider IVF.

26. How long after IUI should implantation occur?

  • Implantation generally takes place 6-12 days after ovulation — so 6-12 days after a well-timed IUI.

27. How much does IUI cost?

  • This is definitely something to consult your doctor or clinic about as the price varies considerably. Ask for a rate sheet, if available, and also ask what your cycle is likely to entail. The IUI procedure and sperm washing average $200-300, but the cost of medications, ultrasounds and bloodwork can make a considerable difference. Someone doing a natural IUI cycle may spend only $200, while someone on injectable medications with monitoring may spend $5,000-6,000.

28. What kind of monitoring is usually done for an IUI cycle?

  • This depends mostly on how the female is being treated. A natural cycle is often timed to over the counter ovulation prediction kits, which cost $15-60 for 5-9 tests. The use of clomiphene citrate can increase the monitoring, but many doctors don't do ultrasounds or settle for one u/s around cycle day 12. Gonadotropins increase both medication costs and the necessity of ultrasounds and bloodwork.

29. At what size are follicles considered mature?

  • Many doctors monitor follicle development during IUI cycles. Most trigger when the dominant follicle is within a certain size range. While there is always some difference in doctor preference, the norms are unmedicated 20-24mm, clomiphene citrate 20-24mm, FSH-only meds 17 or 18mm minimum, and FSH+LH would be 16 or 17mm minimum. It is possible for slightly smaller follicles, 14-15mm, to contain a viable egg. Also, follicles continue to grow until they release, usually at a rate of about 1-2 mm per day. A woman may ovulate more than one follicle in a cycle, but the releases will occur within 24 hours. When hCG is not used, only follicles close in size are likely to release. The use of hCG induces ovulation in about 95 percent of women, and will get most mature follicles to rupture.

30. What should estradiol (E2) level be at time of hCG trigger?

  • The E2 level should be 200-600pg/ml per 18mm follicle. Some doctors are content with a minimum level of 150, but higher tends to be better.

31. What are the risks involved in IUI?

  • The main risks are some discomfort such as cramping, minor injury to the cervix that leads to bleeding or spotting, or introduction of infection (including sexually transmitted disease from the sperm itself — it helps to be sure of the known donor's health, or use carefully monitored frozen specimens). There are also risks of hyperstimulation associated with the use of ovulation induction medications such as clomiphene citrate (low risk) and gonadotropin therapy (higher risk). Proper technique and adequate monitoring reduce risks.

32. What does "sperm washing" mean?

  • It is sometimes also called sperm preparation or spinning. It is a laboratory technique for separating sperm from semen, and separating motile sperm from non-motile sperm, for use in assisted reproduction (IUI, IVF).
  • The washing technique for near normal specimens is mixing the ejaculate after liquefaction with the appropriate washing medium followed by centrifugation. (A centrifuge is a machine that separates materials with different densities by spinning them at high speed.) The supernatant is discarded and the sediment (sperm rich fraction) is re-suspended in more washing medium. This process is repeated 2-3 times maximum. In the final wash, the sediment is re-suspended in 0.5 cc of medium, loaded into a syringe and deposited in the uterus.
  • The "Sperm Rise" or "Swim-up" technique is one in which two to five cc of medium are carefully layered on top of 0.2-0.5 cc of semen. Motile sperm cells "swim-up" into the culture medium. After some time (30-90 minutes) the medium (containing motile sperm cells) is carefully harvested and centrifuged. If necessary, fresh medium is layered on top of the seminal fluid again to harvest more sperm cells.
  • The discontinuous gradient centrifugation technique utilizes a dense liquid phase to separate sperm cells from seminal fluid and debris. There are different compounds commercially available that may be used. Semen is deposited on top of this fluid and subjected to centrifugation. Motile sperm cells migrate to the bottom of the tube, which are used for IUI after further washing.

34. Can IUI work after tubal ligation (having "tubes tied")?

  • No. A tubal ligation is effective birth control because it prevents the sperm and egg from meeting. The process that leads to pregnancy is having an egg released from a follicle in the ovary and then beginning the journey to the uterus through the fallopian tube. Sperm will travel from the vagina, through the cervix, through the uterus, into the tube where fertilization occurs. IUI bypasses the need for the sperm to travel through the cervix, but that's it. It doesn't get the egg to the other side of the obstruction, so fertilization won't take place. The only way to get pregnant after tubal ligation is by having reversal surgery or an assisted reproduction technology that includes egg retrieval, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

35. Can IUI be used for gender selection?

  • Yes, sperm can be washed or spun to increase the odds of having a male or female offspring.The techniques aren't 100 percent effective, but perhaps as high as almost 90 percent. There is usually greater success selecting boys. For more information, do a search on Google.

36. What medicines are used to treat infertility in women?

Some common medicines used to treat infertility in women include:

  • Clomiphene citrate (Clomid): This medicine causes ovulation by acting on the pituitary gland. It is often used in women who have Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) or other problems with ovulation. This medicine is taken by mouth.
  • Human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG (Repronex, Pergonal): This medicine is often used for women who don't ovulate due to problems with their pituitary gland. hMG acts directly on the ovaries to stimulate ovulation. It is an injected medicine.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH (Gonal-F, Follistim): FSH works much like hMG. It causes the ovaries to begin the process of ovulation. These medicines are usually injected.
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) analog: These medicines are often used for women who don't ovulate regularly each month. Women who ovulate before the egg is ready can also use these medicines. Gn-RH analogs act on the pituitary gland to change when the body ovulates. These medicines are usually injected or given with a nasal spray.
  • Metformin (Glucophage): Doctors use this medicine for women who have insulin resistance and/or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) . This drug helps lower the high levels of male hormones in women with these conditions. This helps the body to ovulate. Sometimes clomiphene citrate or FSH is combined with metformin. This medicine is usually taken by mouth.
  • Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This medicine is used for women with ovulation problems due to high levels of prolactin. Prolactin is a hormone that causes milk production.

Many fertility drugs increase a woman's chance of having twins, triplets or other multiples. Women who are pregnant with multiple fetuses have more problems during pregnancy. Multiple fetuses have a high risk of being born too early (prematurely). Premature babies are at a higher risk of health and developmental problems.

37. Donor Egg

As women age, the quantity and quality of their eggs decrease. Using donor eggs overcomes the problem of decreased egg quality and allows many women who could not become pregnant with their own eggs to become pregnant using eggs from a donor. Using donor eggs offers women the opportunity to be biologically connected to the child and to experience pregnancy, childbirth and breast-feeding. In most cases, using donor eggs allows the child to be genetically linked to the husband or male partner (unless donor sperm is required to overcome male infertility.

38. Embryo Adoption

Using donor embryos to become pregnant is an alternative to employing donor eggs. The available embryos have been donated by another couple. Potential recipients of donor embryos are provided with information about the ethnicity, hair and eye color, blood type, medical history and other characteristics of the biological parents of the embryo to help them choose among the available embryos.

39. Gestational Carriers ( Host Uterus )

Gestational surrogacy is an infertility treatment appropriate when normal embryos can be formed, but it is medically desirable or necessary for these embryos to develop within the uterus of a gestational carrier (host) rather than the egg source (female partner or egg donor).

For more information...

You can find out more about infertility by contacting the National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC) at 1-800-994-9662 or the following organizations:

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Resource Center
Phone Number(s): (800) 762-2264
Internet Address: http://www.acog.org

American Society for Reproductive Medicine
Phone Number(s): (205) 978-5000
Internet Address: http://www.asrm.org/

Resolve: The National Infertility Association
Phone Number(s): (888) 623-0744
Internet Address: http://www.resolve.org

For more information on Donor Sperm, Donor Egg, Surrogacy and Embryo Adoption…

http://www.fertilityplus.org/faq/donor.html

 

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